MARTIAL ARTS TERMINOLOGY
Dan : Degree
Do : The way
Do bok : Uniform
Do Jang : Training Room
Ki hap : Power yell
Kuk ki : Flag
Kup : Rank (color belts only)
Kwan : School
Mook Nyum : Meditation
Poomse : Forms
Sa ba nim : Means Master given to a 4th Dan Black Belt or higher.
Taegeuk: Tae means bigness while geuk means enternity.
Ti : Belt
Dogi (gi): Karate uniform.
Dojo: Place to learn the way.
Kata : Forms
Kumite : Sparring. Meaning meeting of the hands.
Makiwara: Striking board.
Sensei : Karate teacher. It means person born before another. A title used as a mark of respect.
Shihan: Chief instructor, teacher of teachers.
Soke: Head of family or lineage.
TAEKWONDO HISTORY TIMELINE
2333 BC: According to legend, Tangun founds a civilization on the Korean peninsula.
50 BC : Possible date of early cave drawings on walls of Korean caves, depicting men in
57 BC : Kingdom of Silla is founded.
37 BC : Kingdom of Kogryo is founded.
18 BC : Kingdom of Packje is founded, establishing the three kingdom dynasty. The early
martial art Subak spreads through Packje and Silla.
540 - 576 AD : Chin Heung, 24th king of Silla, commissions the formation of the Hwa Rang Do.
668 - 935 AD : The Hwa Rang Do of Silla practice Subak and also develop the next form of Taekyon, which has more order and structure. Subak and Taekyon become popular
with the general public, not just the military.
935 AD : General Wang Kon leads an insurrection against koryo, overthrowing the government
and founding the Koryo dynasty. Taekyon is required for all military training and is
practiced by the general public as well.
1392 : The Yi Dynasty (also called Chosun Dynasty) begins. This government promotes
a Confucian philosophy, which downplays martial arts. Although the general public
Practices Taekyon and Subak, some instructors flee to other Asian countries. The
name Taekyon is sometimes replaced by the name Soo Back Ki (hand striking
1909 : Japan conquers Korea and outlaws all Korean culture, including the practice of any
native martial art. Taekyon instructors practice in hiding or flee to other countries,
where they are influenced by other martial arts. Han Il Dong and his student, Choi
Hong Hi, practice Taekyon in secret.
1945 : At the end of World War Two, Korea is liberated from Japanese occupation. Korean
martial arts are rejuvenated, but lack consistency and organization. Many schools
(kwans) practice forms and kicks containing Japanese influences.
1946 : Hwang Kee founds a martial art called Moo Duk Kwan, which later splits into
Taekwondo style and Tang Soo Do style.
1946 : Taekyon is taught to police in Seoul, Korea.
1946 : First Lietenant Choi Hong Hi teaches his style of Taekyon to the military under his
1950-1953: The Korean War divides the country in two.
1953 : The Korean Taekwondo Association (K.T.A), the precursor to the World Taekwondo
Federation, is formed by nine kwans.
1955 : Nine kwans (schools) of Korean martial arts, including Taekyon, agree to combine the
arts and rename the Korean martial art Tae Soo Do.
1957 : General Choi recommends to the kwans that the name be changed to Taekwondo. Adopted by the kwans.
1958 : Master Hwang Kee Hwang removes the kwan Tang Soo Do Moo Duck Kwan from the
Taekwondo umbrella. He forms the Korean martial art Tang Soo Do.
1960 : Organization by the K.T.A begin to dispatch Korean masters of Taekwondo to other
countries to hold demonstrations and to open dojangs (schools).
1963 : Master Duk-Sung Son (Chung Do Kwan) comes to New York City, United States, and
founds the World Taekwondo Association.
1966 : General Choi founds the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) with support from
Vietnam, West Germany, Malaysia, Turkey, Italy, United Arab Republic, Taiwan and United States. The ITF is a separate organization from the Korean Taekwondo
1967 : The US Taekwondo Association is formed.
1969 : American Taekwondo Association is founded by Master Haeung Lee, based in Omaha,
1972 : Kukkiwon building is completed.
1972 : General Choi leaves South Korea, moving ITF Headquarters to Toronto, Canada.
1973 : The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) is established and dissolves all associations
with the ITF. Kukkiwon becomes the official headquarters and training facility of the
WTF. Chung Do Kwan aligns itself with the WTF.
1974 : US Taekwondo Association is renamed the US Taekwondo Federation.
1975 : Mr. Jamal Muhammad Shabazz took his first Martial Arts instruction at the Naval Training Center in San Diego, California under the instruction of Filipino Kuntaw Kung Fu Grand Master and US Navy first class petty officer Mike Balbo.
1977 : The nine different kwans (Chung Do Kwan, Ji Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan, Chang Moo Kwan, Soo Moo Kwan, Han Moo Kwan, Oh Do Kwan, Jung Do Kwan, and Kang Du Won) recognize the Kukkiwon and WTF as the promotional body of Taekwondo, and agree to the black belt certification process and certificates.
1979 : African Taekwondo Union holds first African Taekwondo Championships.
1982 : Master Soo Kon Kim founded the United States Taekwondo Association (USTA) later called the Universal Taekwondo Association (UTA).
1984 : Mr. Jamal Muhammad Shabazz joined the UTA and started Taekwondo classes in Chicago under the guidance of Master Soo Kon Kim and his two brothers.
1988 : Sensei Shabazz was promoted to first degree black belt and opened up his own Dojang in Chicago and started teaching Taekwondo.
1988 : Taekwondo is an exhibition sport in the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games.
1990 : Sensei Shabazz was promoted to second degree black belt in Taekwondo and several years later received his third degree.
1992 : Taekwondo is again an exhibition sport at the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games.
1994 : WTF Taekwondo is adopted as a full participatory sport for the 2004 Sidney Olympic
2000 : The IOC committee confirms that Taekwondo will be an official sport in the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.